THYMOSIN BETA 4
What is Thymosin β4
Thymosin Beta 4 is a peptide that is naturally occurring and is present in all humans and animal cells. It is a peptide, specifically designed to help speed up the repair and recovery process, where an injury has been sustained.
Molecular Weight: 4963.4408
Molecular Formula: C212H350N56O78S
Benefits of Thymosin β4
- Promotes wound healing
- Promotes muscle building, improved muscular tone
- Speeds up the recovery time for muscle fibres and their cells
- Improved flexibility
- Calms muscular spasms
- Accelerates muscle growth, increases muscle tone, endurance and strength
- Decreases inflammation of joints and improves flexibility
- Regenerates cells in vital organs
- Prevents the formation of adhesions and fibrous bands within muscles, tendons, tissue
Effects of Thymosin β4
- Endothelial (blood vessels) cell migration and differentiation
- Angiogenesis (growth of new blood cells from pre-existing vessels) in dermal tissues
- Keratinocyte migration
- Collagen deposition
- Increase the exchange of substance between cells
- Encourage tissue repair
- Stretches connective tissue and helps maintain flexibility
Thymosin β4 How it works
Thymosin Beta 4 is a little different from other repair factors, such as growth factors. Thymosin Beta 4 has been shown to promote endothelial and keratinocyte migration. One of Thymosin Beta 4 critical mechanisms of action is that it can up-regulate the cell-building protein, Actin. Actin is an essential component playing a role in cell structure and its mobility. This upregulation assists in the building of new blood vessel pathways and has been shown to regulate inflammation that is connected to wound healing. The molecular structure and low molecular weight of Thymosin Beta 4 grant the molecule with an increased ability to travel long distances throughout tissues. This means when targeting chronically or acute injuries Thymosin Beta 4 can circulate the body, locate the injury site and then take corrective action.
When Thymosin Beta 4 is stacked with other GHRH and GHRP products, recovery times can shorten by half the time it is expected to heal. Recent studies have discovered that the first gene to be upregulated after an injury is sustained is the Thymosin Beta 4 gene. During the recovery process, Thymosin Beta 4 assists by creating new vessels within the injury site. These can then carry blood, nutrients and healing substances to the site. The anti-inflammatory properties of Thymosin Beta 4 work to minimise how many cytokines are present at the site of injury. Cytokines are inflammatory substances that are released as part of the inflammatory response – yet too many of them can indicate that one’s inflammation has run rampant. Inflammation plays a significant role in many conditions including autoimmune diseases, and it is said that inflammation is often the onset of impending disease. Thymosin Beta 4, therefore, works to control the inflammatory response and ensure, the efficient repair and recovery of the injury without delay.
Thymosin Beta 4’s role in the process of immune regulation has to lead many medical professionals to believe it has significant and valuable therapies. Thymosin Beta 4 has been used to treat HIV, AIDS, Influenza and Colds as well as various infections and inflammatory conditions. Thymosin Beta 4 and its range of therapeutic use are even being linked to the healing of the heart after a patient sustains a heart attack.
Thymosin β4 Side effects
Thymosin Beta 4 is a very well tolerated peptide product. There have been no reports linking the use of Thymosin Beta 4 with serious side effects. It can be taken on its own or in conjunction with an existing therapy, making it a versatile and valuable peptide.
Thymosin β4 Clinical studies and research
- Thymosin beta 4 up-regulates miR-200a expression and induces differentiation and survival of rat brain progenitor cells.
Santra M, Chopp M, Santra S, Nallani A, Vyas S, Zhang ZG, Morris DC. J Neurochem. 2016 Jan;136(1):118-32. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13394. Epub 2015 Nov 10.PMID: 26466330
- Expression of thymosin beta-4 in human periodontal ligament cells and mouse periodontal tissue and its role in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation.Lee SI, Lee DW, Yun HM, Cha HJ, Bae CH, Cho ES, Kim EC.Differentiation. 2015 Jul-Oct;90(1- 3):16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.diff.2015.08.003. Epub 2015 Sep 8.PMID: 26361868
- C-terminal variable AGES domain of Thymosin β4: the molecule's primary contribution in support of post-ischemic cardiac function and repair.Hinkel R, Ball HL, DiMaio JM, Shrivastava S, Thatcher JE, Singh AN, Sun X, Faskerti G, Olson EN, Kupatt C, Bock-Marquette I.J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 Oct;87:113-25. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Aug 5.PMID: 26255251
- Novel modulators of hepatosteatosis, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Lakshman MR, Reyes-Gordillo K, Varatharajalu R, Arellanes-Robledo J, Leckey LC, Garige M, Shah R.Hepatol Int. 2014 Sep;8 Suppl 2:413-20. doi: 10.1007/s12072-014- 9526-8. Epub 2014 Mar 26.PMID: 26201319
- Correction: Thymosin beta 4 protects mice from monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.PLOS ONE Staff.PLoS One. 2015 Feb 19;10(2):e0118428. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118428. eCollection 2015.PMID: 25695660
- Effect of thymosin beta 4 in the presence of up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway on high-glucose- exposed vascular endothelial cells.
- Kim S, Kwon J.Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015 Feb 5;401:238-47. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2014.12.008. Epub 2014 Dec 23.PMID: 25540921
- Thymosin beta 4 improves dermal burn wound healing via downregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products in db/db mice.Kim S, Kwon J.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec;1840(12):3452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.09.013. Epub 2014 Sep 16. PMID: 25230158
- Advances in the basic and clinical applications of thymosin β4. Goldstein AL, Kleinman HK. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S139-45. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1011617. Epub 2015 Jun 22.PMID: 26466330